Target Institutions
  • National Libraries
  • Academic Libraries
  • Public Libraries
  • Special Libraries
Availability 02/15/1992
CROLIST Integrated Library Automation System Oracle
Catalogue Enquiry
Serials Control

Introduction ( Taken from the " An Introduction to Library Automation " ver.1-12/03/96 , published by the Commission of the European Communities. )*

Computers are now used in many libraries all over the world. They help librarians carry out their work by making it easier to manage their libraries, and by allowing access to information resources held elswhere. Technological advances will continue to open new opportunities for libraries to develop their services and to link into computer networks worldwide.

The history of library automation largely reflects the development of computer technology. Some larger libraries first started experimenting with computer systems in the 1960s. The first uses were for creating bibliographic databases as library catalogues which lead to the development and adoption of machine-readable cataloguing (MARC) practices and to the establishment of shared cataloguing cooperatives. During the 1970s, a range of online services became available offering access from a computer terminal in the library to bibliographic databases on remote computers.

With the rapid development of lower cost microcomputers during the 1980s, library automation has now became a real proposition for all types of libraries. Many specialist library systems are now available commercially, offering computer solutions for the standard routines of cataloguing, circulation, acquisition, and serials control, all in a single software product. Computers in libraries need not be restricted to library systems, however. Additional uses of a computer which can benefit the library include wordprocessing, desktop publishing, spreadsheets, creating databases of specialist materials, sending electronic messages, and searching for information published on CD-ROM discs.

The late 1980s and early 1990s have seen the rise of computer networking. By linking computers together to form a network, access can be provided both locally and from a distance, and the various different resources held on the networked computers can be shared. The growth of the global Internet, the so-called "information superhighway", is having far reaching implications for the future of all libraries. For example, introducing computer-based services can raise the image of the library in the organisation as a whole ( national library, university library, special library etc. ) which will have important implications for funding and future development. On the other hand, a successful library system with improved library services can also bring increased job satisfaction for library staff.

What is CROLIST ?

CROLIST is the " State of the Art " fully integrated Library Automation System. CROLIST is the international version of the software product that was developed under the name " CROLIST " for the Croatian National and University Library in Zagreb to meet both its own needs and those of the wider library community in Croatia. It has been used in production since February 1992. Besides, CROLIST has been installed in more than one hundred of other Libraries in Croatia. Many of them are connected to the Central System in National and University Library thus forming a distributed Data Base architecture.

The Client-Server model of Data Base Management System allows Authority and Bibliographic data residing on virtualy any system in the network beeing retrieved and downloaded to Local Client systems.

This material describes the standards on which the system is based and highlights key features of each module.

Why is CROLIST the " State of the Art " information system ?

CROLIST was initialy modeled and developed to cover all UNIMARC tags, indicators and subfield identifiers listed in IFLA's UNIMARC Manuals for Bibliographic and Authority data. Therefore CROLIST can serve as " Universal Library Information System " in all kinds of libraries providing Data Base storage and retrieval for all types of materials, bibliographic and hierarchical levels, as well as for all types of Authority headings, tracings and explanatory notes.

CROLIST uses ORACLE Relational Database Management System which is the market leader and world's most commonly used standard SQL RDBMS. Besides ORACLE CROLIST uses C language. That guarantees that data in CROLIST Database will be operational without conversion as long as SQL remains standard fourth generation query language.

CROLIST Database is 100% SQL manipulated, allowing information maintenance beeing acomplished by End-User staff with no need for extra programming.

Oracle National Language Support provides to CROLIST support for multilingual data storage and retrieval in most local languages and scripts like English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Check, Hungarian, Russian and others.

By creating multiple ORACLE Database Instances on one UNIX server system, one CROLIST software can handle separate bibliographic databases concurently.

CROLIST supports ISO-2709 UNIMARC and ISSN interchange formats export/import facilities.

CROLIST uses custom made transaction processing monitor and distributed database protocol which incorporates robust two-phase commit mechanism to ensure the integrity of distributed update transactions. By exploring mentioned technological features CROLIST can be easily configured as UNION CATALOGUE distributed Database providing Cooperative Cataloguing and Transparent OPAC Virtual Library searching, information services and document delivery.

Bibliographic Database CROLIST is integrated repository of multi media informations catalogued in standard UNIMARC format. CROLIST 4th Generation Web OPAC will help bring article images to user desktops. From citations to abstracts to full text, Web OPAC provides a world of information online.


UNIMARC (UNIversal MAchine Readable Cataloguing) is an international exchange format for bibliographic and authority data. It was established as an international standard by IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions). It covers monographs (books), serials, articles and cartographic materials, music, sound recordings, graphics, projected and video materials, older books (antiquarian), with provisional fields for electronic resources (computer files and networked information : World Wide Web pages, Gopher services etc.).

UNIX Platforms:

CROLIST server (multiuser) version runs on most UNIX platforms i.e.

SUN (SPARC) Solaris

MS-Windows CLIENT runs on any IBM 386/486/Pentium compatible Personal Computer and requires 8 MB of RAM.

Users are able to access CROLIST Database using graphical browsers on the World Wide Web. Searchers can connect to CROLIST using the popular Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer for Windows, Mac, and X-Windows. Besides standard HTML tags, Web pages generated from CROLIST CGI programs contain javaScript enhancements.


For connecting Client/Server/Router systems CROLIST uses several communication and transaction proccessing monitor protocols :

TCP/IP over serial lines (PPP)
HTTP Internet / Intranet protocol
UNIBIS-ALADIN Distributed Database Protocol for Cooperative Cataloguing

CROLIST OPAC on the World Wide Web

Users are able to use various access points like : TITLE, PERSONAL NAME, KEYWORDS FROM TITLE etc, as well as adjacency, search limits, subject heading lists ( browsing search terms ) , and more.

Web Advantages of CROLIST OPAC

  • Common interface. Web OPAC makes CROLIST searchable via the widely used Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers, making it even easier for your library to incorporate CROLIST Web OPAC into your collection of reference tools. With Web OPAC, you can provide your users with access to CROLIST through the same interface used for browsing other information sources on the Web.
  • Increased access flexibility. The introduction of Web OPAC gives you another option for making CROLIST available to your users.

Cooperative Cataloguing

CROLIST's Client " ALADIN " provides:

  • Mechanism for secure ( encrypted password transmission ) simultaneous user login to the Local ( Origin ) and Remote ( Target ) system. The Local system(server) does not have to be domain in Internet, rather only user's MS-Windows PC with preinstalled ALADIN should be connected to Internet provider due to modem.
  • Cooperative cataloguing of bibliographic and authority records on both local and remote system.
  • Automatic download of cooperativly catalogued or any other selected bibliographic record(s) along with corresponding authority record(s) from remote to local system.
  • Export of bibliographic and authority records on remote system into UNIMARC ISO-2709 record format, transfer and import of recieved UNIMARC ISO-2709 into CROLIST database on local system.
  • Update of UNION CATALOGUE on remote system.
  • Robust transaction processing monitor with two-phase commit mechanism for ensuring download transaction's integrity.

ALADIN also provides "on the fly" conversion from MARC21 to UNIMARC format when downloading records from National and University Library, LOC, British Library etc.

The unit of transaction which integrates each dowload of bibliographic record into CROLIST database consists of following steps:

  • Insertion or replacement of all bibliographic record fields ( tags ).
  • Maintenance of old-new record identifiers relation as well as horizontal record to record and record to authority records links.
  • Automatic phrase and keyword multilingual indexing of bibliographic record's access points.
  • Insertion or replacement of corresponding authority records.
  • Automatic phrase and keyword indexing of authority record's access points.

Application Name CROLIST*Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing

Description CROLIST*Cataloguing /*Searching and *Printing is the core of integrated system when working in conjuction with other CROLIST modules like : *Circulation, *Acquisition, *Serials Control and *Conversion.

It is an Integrated Comprehensive shared Cataloguing System that provides all Basic Library Management functions. The Cataloguing module covers all Bibliographic tags, indicators and subfield identifiers listed in IFLA's UNIMARC Manual (1996), along with all Authority headings and reference tracings listed in IFLA's UNIMARC for AUTHORITIES. Authority and Bibliographic Data are linked together providing a structure for efficient fast ONLINE PUBLIC ACCESS CATALOGUE retrieval. Keyword indexing is ON-LINE and multi lingual stopwords are detected. System provides attached vocabulary control when desired. Zero hit queries automaticaly trigger SEE reference tracing. The LCSH Scheme has been used in subject heading cataloguing and retrieval.


Procedures for online creation of bibliographic and authority records using formatted screens are identical and object oriented. Skilled librarians are able to enter data by identifying a particular UNIMARC tag. Others can fill data using predefined set of TEMPLATES for particular type of materials. In both cases data is validated against the knowledge database. The knowledge database contains user definable tables of UNIMARC tags that imply particular cataloguing rules, and marked up tags to be indexed. It also functions as help to the cataloguer. As soon as the bibliographic record, in whatever stage of completeness, is entered in database, it can be displayed on screen either with UNIMARC tags or in the ISBD format as shown to the end user in the Searching module. Authority headings are displayed on screen either in UNIMARC tagged format or with relevant see and see also references. The module supports cataloguing of all types of library material at all bibliographic levels ( monographs, serial and analytic ). It also supports all relationships between hierarchically ( multi-volume, series-monograph, journal-article ) and horizontally ( versions of monographs, forms of publications, 'history' of serials ) linked records within the bibliographic database as well as links to the authority database. This latter link is realised by selecting and validating a record in the authority database and downloading it into a bibliographic tag. The authority database maintains full authority records: authority headings with see and see also reference tracings in authority entry records and general explanatory entry records with scope notes, usage, etc.

The system provides entry validation of coded fields and checks for duplicates within both bibliographic and authority databases, while copying of records functions only within the bibliographic database. In the process of copying a bibliographic record with appropriate links to the authority database, the link from the authority record to the copied bibliographic one is automatically upgraded within the authority database. The function could also be done by checking for data in foreign host from the local aplication. In this case the chosen bibliographic record is downloaded together with appropriate authority records if they are not already present in the local authority database. Validation and downloading of authority records from access point tags in bibliographic record can also be done in online remote mode.

Deletion of records is user login restricted due to the fact that deletion of the full bibliographic record implies de-indexing and deletion of all authority links and holdings (copy) records, while deletion of authority records implies deletion of all links to both other authority records ( see also references ) and bibliographic ones.

Catalogue Enquiry

On entering the CROLIST Searching menu-driven module or Web page, the user is first presented with a self explanatory screen ( page ) from which s/he can search by :

  • keyword
  • personal, family, corporate body or geographical names
  • subject according to the Library's subject heading system : topic, personal, family, corporate body or geographical name, title used as subject
  • uncontrolled subject terms
  • beginning of the title
  • UDC and other classification schemes
  • imprint
  • ISBN, ISSN and shelfmarks

Searches can be limited by qualifiers, eg language ( in keyword search ), type of material, bibliographic level and year of publication. Help is provided ranging from explaining retrieval philosophy to displaying the UDC classification scheme.

On deciding to search keywords, user enters the module Front End System Mind ( FESM ). It opens with the help screen in which the system is described. FESM is designed for users who are not familiar with the structure of bibliographic records. The user enters one or few words or phrase that can be right truncated or can contain wild characters. The truncation can be done explicitly by the end user or implicitly by the system : the system first searches for word(s) matching the search term(s), and if there is no term match, truncates according to the internally set language algorithm. The system incorporates implicit use of AND as well as explicit use of AND , OR , NOT Boolean operators. Relevant to the number of records retrieved - relevance ranking is performed. Besides, the system automatically searches on co-indexes ( related subject headings ) which display together with other results. The displayed search result gives users information on type and number of retrieved heading(s).

Both in standard OPAC and FESM, when heading-type or heading ( name or subject ) containig hit(s) is selected, full bibliographic data records are displayed with copy record status information on the following screen (page). The retrieved set of records can be printed or stored to a local PC. Searches can be also carried out for related records: multi-volume publications, journal articles, series-monographs, 'history' of periodicals and other hierarchical and horizontal relations.

Apart from the menu driven OPAC and FESM, SQL search with limitless possibilities of searching content designated bibliographic and authority data can be carried out by trained staff.

Key Features

  • Full UNIMARC Authority and Bibliographic Data Model
  • Cataloguing rules validation in user definable KNOWLEDGE Data Base
  • 100% SQL Bibliographic Data Base manipulation
  • Distributed Data Model with global changes of authority data and Possibility of Cooperative Cataloguing
  • On Line Database management (i.e. Keyword indexing)
  • End User Searching through FRONT END SYSTEM MIND without command language
  • Retrieval of all UNIMARC Authority and Bibliographic Access Points + user definable aditional indexing
  • Printing of various formats of Catalogue Cards
  • Production of Bibliographies by preparing formats to be printed with popular third party P&P packages
  • Multilingual and multiscript cataloguing due to ORACLE National Language support

Related Products CROLIST*Circulation CROLIST*SerialsControl CROLIST*Acquisition CROLIST*Conversion

Application Name CROLIST*Acquisition


Integrated Comprehensive System that provides purchase, check-in and follow up towards circulation of multiple copies of monographs and collections.

The Acquisition module covers four basic control functions:

Bibliographic control
  • holding statement is integrated with UNIMARC bibliographic record

Acquisition control
  • REQUESTING and APPROVING of acquisition and creation of new ITEM record
  • issuing, ammending, cancelling and printing of multi-item PURCHASE ORDERS

Holdings control
  • CHECK-IN of purchased copies and CLAIMING
  • assigning INVENTORY numbers

Accounting control
  • Budget (FUND) creating and managing
  • receipt and paying of INVOICES

CROLIST*Acquisition is tailored to work in conjuction with other CROLIST modules like : *Cataloguing / *Searching and *Circulation but it can be configured to be a stand-alone module as well.

Key Features

  • Flexible and user friendly document creation forms
  • Unlimited number of funds, locations, personnel and supplier records and delivery addresses
  • Automatic inventory sequence number generator with user definable prefix to suite local inventory numbering rules
  • Displaying the number of purchased copies in holding statement in OPAC
  • 100% SQL Holdings Data Base manupulation.
  • Ad hoc reports using SQL

Related Products CROLIST*Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing CROLIST*Circulation

Application Name CROLIST*Circulation


Integrated Comprehensive System that provides Circulation Control of multiple copies of monographs and collections.

The Circulation module covers three basic control functions :

Bibliographic control
  • holding statement is integrated with UNIMARC bibliographic record

Holdings control
  • creating COPY (item) records and BORROWER registration using Bar-codes
  • CHARGING OUT, CHECKING IN (discharging) and INVENTORY control
  • RENEWALS (on site and by telephone), RECALLS and OVERDUES
  • HOLDS (reservations of first available copy)

Library services control
  • interlibrary loans and photocopying request management

CROLIST*Circulation is tailored to work in conjuction with other CROLIST modules like : *Cataloguing / *Searching and *Acquisition, but it can be configured to be a stand-alone module as well.

Key Features

  • Application Setup due to parameter tables for loan, fine and overdue policy.
  • Unlimited number of various classes of items and borrowers.
  • 100% SQL Holdings Data Base manipulation.
  • ON-LINE standard circulation statistic reports.
  • Ad hoc reports using SQL
  • System keeps track of all loan transactions and allows selective optional removal of expired data
  • Functional grouping of forms ( i.e. check-out and borrower status ), thus avoiding unnecessary navigation in aplication.
  • Printing of stack, hold and photocopy requests at user's site instead of consulting librarians about particular informations.
  • Random and batch printing of various notices.

Related Products CROLIST*Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing CROLIST*Acquisition

Application Name CROLIST*Serials Control


Integrated Comprehensive System that provides purchase, subscription, check-in and follow up of multiple copies of serial/periodical publication.

The Serials Control module covers four basic control functions:

Bibliographic control
  • holding statement is integrated with UNIMARC bibliographic record

Acquisition control
  • REQUESTING and APPROVING of subscription and creation of ITEM record
  • issuing, ammending, cancelling and printing of multi-item PURCHASE ORDERS
  • automatic creation of ISSUE PREDICTION PATTERNS for subscription period

Holdings control
  • CHECK-IN of issues and CLAIMING
  • creating and printing of ROUTING LISTS
  • BINDING of completed volumes

Accounting control
  • Budget (FUND) creating and managing
  • receipt and paying of INVOICES

CROLIST*Serials Control is tailored to work in conjuction with other CROLIST modules like : *Cataloguing / *Searching, but it can be configured to be a stand-alone module as well.

Key Features

  • Flexible and user friendly document creation forms
  • Unlimited number of funds, locations, personnel and supplier records, delivery addresses and routing lists
  • Extremely sophisticated automatic prediction pattern generation for ordered issues
  • Possibility of appending special issue records to regular holdings of serials
  • 100% SQL Holdings Data Base manupulation.
  • Adhoc reports using SQL

Related Products CROLIST*Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing

Application Name CROLIST*Conversion


Integrated Comprehensive System that provides Basic Library's Data conversion functions. AUTHORITY and BIBLIOGRAPHIC data IMPORT from UNIMARC ISO-2709 format into CROLIST-ORACLE-SQL Data Base as well as EXPORTING data in the oposite direction is supported. Besides, CROLIST*Conversion is capable of converting CROLIST-ORACLE data into ISSN ISO-2709 format and vice versa.

Unique Record-identifier management is accomplished by attaching Header information concerning origin (source) of data thus providing distinguishing of data when being imported from various sources into single Data Base. In order to achieve that, system internaly keeps track of each single record being imported from particular source and allows later updating, appending or substitution of same record from the same source. Using practice mentioned so far, conversion of record-identifiers in both directions is also supported allong with appropriate supstitution of UNIMARC linking tag record-identifier referencies.

CROLIST*Conversion is intended to be working only in conjuction with basic CROLIST modules like : *Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing and can not be configured as stand-alone module.

Key Features

  • All functions are Menu driven and designed to be used by end-users
  • User definable tag/subfield-identifier conversion tables for conversion from CROLIST to other ISO-2709 formats and vice versa
  • Possibility of defining exceptional conversion rules based on if/then/else logic for particular cases
  • 100% SQL based selection of material to be exported
  • Control of uniqueness of exported/imported material and record-identifier conversion and management
  • Distributed Data Model support for multi-host cataloguing and record interchange (off-line cooperative cataloguing)
  • Alternative Backup technique for CROLIST Data Base

Related Products CROLIST*Cataloguing / *Searching and *Printing

Hybrid Library

Crolist WEBPac is now able to display a digitalized form of bibliographic Item or it's digital isue along with Metadata. After the material has been digitalized, for example the pages of some rare material which is not available for public manipulation, CROLIST software automaticaly produces the structure of digitalized elements which is suitable for presentation on Internet. The structure is then automaticaly linked to the bibliographic record beeing cataloged for searching in the database.

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